Medical devices

Regulation (EU) 2017/745 aims to protect the human health and safety, smooth operation of the single market and to achieve the results for which the devices are intended.

National authorities must ensure that all medical devices available in the EU are safe for patients, users and others when they are properly installed, maintained and used as they should be.

News
Proposal for a regulation on medicinal & plant protection products - single procedure for the granting of SPCs.

Legal act:
Regulation (EU) 2017/745

Regulation (EU) 2020/561 amending Regulation (EU) 2017/745

Parts of Directive 93/42/EEC that remain active:
Regulation (EU) 2017/745, Article 122 - Repeal and Regulation (EU) 2020/561, Article 1.7

 

Consolidated act:
24/04/2020 of Regulation (EU) 2017/745

See Additional Resources tab.

Subject matter and scope

  1. This Regulation lays down rules concerning the placing on the market, making available on the market or putting into service of medical devices for human use and accessories for such devices in the Union. This Regulation also applies to clinical investigations concerning such medical devices and accessories conducted in the Union.
  2. This Regulation shall also apply, as from the date of application of common specifications adopted pursuant to Article 9, to the groups of products without an intended medical purpose that are listed in Annex XVI, taking into account the state of the art, and in particular existing harmonised standards for analogous devices with a medical purpose, based on similar technology. The common specifications for each of the groups of products listed in Annex XVI shall address, at least, application of risk management as set out in Annex I for the group of products in question and, where necessary, clinical evaluation regarding safety. The necessary common specifications shall be adopted by 26 May 2020. They shall apply as from six months after the date of their entry into force or from 26 May 2020, whichever is the latest. Notwithstanding Article 122, Member States' measures regarding the qualification of the products covered by Annex XVI as medical devices pursuant to Directive 93/42/EEC shall remain valid until the date of application, as referred to in the first subparagraph, of the relevant common specifications for that group of products. This Regulation also applies to clinical investigations conducted in the Union concerning the products referred to in the first subparagraph.
  3. Devices with both a medical and a non-medical intended purpose shall fulfil cumulatively the requirements applicable to devices with an intended medical purpose and those applicable to devices without an intended medical purpose.
  4. For the purposes of this Regulation, medical devices, accessories for medical devices, and products listed in Annex XVI to which this Regulation applies pursuant to paragraph 2 shall hereinafter be referred to as ‘devices’.
  5. Where justified on account of the similarity between a device with an intended medical purpose placed on the market and a product without an intended medical purpose in respect of their characteristics and risks, the Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 115 to amend the list in Annex XVI, by adding new groups of products, in order to protect the health and safety of users or other persons or other aspects of public health.
  6. This Regulation does not apply to:
    1. in vitro diagnostic medical devices covered by Regulation (EU) 2017/746;
    2. medicinal products as defined in point 2 of Article 1 of Directive 2001/83/EC. In deciding whether a product falls under Directive 2001/83/EC or under this Regulation, particular account shall be taken of the principal mode of action of the product;
    3. advanced therapy medicinal products covered by Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007;
    4. human blood, blood products, plasma or blood cells of human origin or devices which incorporate, when placed on the market or put into service, such blood products, plasma or cells, except for devices referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article;
    5. cosmetic products covered by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009;
    6. transplants, tissues or cells of animal origin, or their derivatives, or products containing or consisting of them; however this Regulation does apply to devices manufactured utilising tissues or cells of animal origin, or their derivatives, which are non-viable or are rendered non-viable;
    7. transplants, tissues or cells of human origin, or their derivatives, covered by Directive 2004/23/EC, or products containing or consisting of them; however this Regulation does apply to devices manufactured utilising derivatives of tissues or cells of human origin which are non-viable or are rendered non-viable;
    8. products, other than those referred to in points (d), (f) and (g), that contain or consist of viable biological material or viable organisms, including living micro-organisms, bacteria, fungi or viruses in order to achieve or support the intended purpose of the product;
    9. food covered by Regulation (EC) No 178/2002.
  7. Any device which, when placed on the market or put into service, incorporates as an integral part an in vitro diagnostic medical device as defined in point 2 of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 2017/746, shall be governed by this Regulation. The requirements of Regulation (EU) 2017/746 shall apply to the in vitro diagnostic medical device part of the device.
  8. Any device which, when placed on the market or put into service, incorporates, as an integral part, a substance which, if used separately, would be considered to be a medicinal product as defined in point 2 of Article 1 of Directive 2001/83/EC, including a medicinal product derived from human blood or human plasma as defined in point 10 of Article 1 of that Directive, and that has an action ancillary to that of the device, shall be assessed and authorised in accordance with this Regulation. However, if the action of that substance is principal and not ancillary to that of the device, the integral product shall be governed by Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 1 ), as applicable. In that case, the relevant general safety and performance requirements set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply as far as the safety and performance of the device part are concerned.
  9. Any device which is intended to administer a medicinal product as defined in point 2 of Article 1 of Directive 2001/83/EC shall be governed by this Regulation, without prejudice to the provisions of that Directive and of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 with regard to the medicinal product. However, if the device intended to administer a medicinal product and the medicinal product are placed on the market in such a way that they form a single integral product which is intended exclusively for use in the given combination and which is not reusable, that single integral product shall be governed by Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, as applicable. In that case, the relevant general safety and performance requirements set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply as far as the safety and performance of the device part of the single integral product are concerned.
  10. Any device which, when placed on the market or put into service, incorporates, as an integral part, non-viable tissues or cells of human origin or their derivatives that have an action ancillary to that of the device shall be assessed and authorised in accordance with this Regulation. In that case, the provisions for donation, procurement and testing laid down in Directive 2004/23/EC shall apply. However, if the action of those tissues or cells or their derivatives is principal and not ancillary to that of the device and the product is not governed by Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007, the product shall be governed by Directive 2004/23/EC. In that case, the relevant general safety and performance requirements set out in Annex I to this Regulation shall apply as far as the safety and performance of the device part are concerned.
  11. This Regulation is specific Union legislation within the meaning of Article 2(3) of Directive 2014/30/EU.
  12. Devices that are also machinery within the meaning of point (a) of the second paragraph of Article 2 of Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 1 ) shall, where a hazard relevant under that Directive exists, also meet the essential health and safety requirements set out in Annex I to that Directive to the extent to which those requirements are more specific than the general safety and performance requirements set out in Chapter II of Annex I to this Regulation.
  13. This Regulation shall not affect the application of Directive 2013/59/Euratom.
  14. This Regulation shall not affect the right of a Member State to restrict the use of any specific type of device in relation to aspects not covered by this Regulation.
  15. This Regulation shall not affect national law concerning the organisation, delivery or financing of health services and medical care, such as the requirement that certain devices may only be supplied on a medical prescription, the requirement that only certain health professionals or healthcare institutions may dispense or use certain devices or that their use be accompanied by specific professional counselling.
  16. Nothing in this Regulation shall restrict the freedom of the press or the freedom of expression in the media in so far as those freedoms are guaranteed in the Union and in the Member States, in particular under Article 11 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

 

Definitions

Procedure pack means a combination of products packaged together and placed on the market with the purpose of being used for a specific medical purpose.

Unique Device Identifier (UDI) means a series of numeric or alphanumeric characters that is created through internationally accepted device identification and coding standards and that allows unambiguous identification of specific devices on the market.

Making available on the market means any supply of a device, other than an investigational device, for distribution, consumption or use on the Union market in the course of a commercial activity, whether in return for payment or free of charge.

Placing on the market means the first making available of a device, other than an investigational device, on the Union market.

Putting into service means the stage at which a device, other than an investigational device, has been made available to the final user as being ready for use on the Union market for the first time for its intended purpose.

Fully refurbishing, for the purposes of the definition of manufacturer, means the complete rebuilding of a device already placed on the market or put into service, or the making of a new device from used devices, to bring it into conformity with this Regulation, combined with the assignment of a new lifetime to the refurbished device.

Importer means any natural or legal person established within the Union that places a device from a third country on the Union market.

Distributor means any natural or legal person in the supply chain, other than the manufacturer or the importer, that makes a device available on the market, up until the point of putting into service.

Clinical data means information concerning safety or performance that is generated from the use of a device and is sourced from the following:

  • clinical investigation(s) of the device concerned,
  • clinical investigation(s) or other studies reported in scientific literature, of a device for which equivalence to the device in question can be demonstrated,
  • reports published in peer reviewed scientific literature on other clinical experience of either the device in question or a device for which equivalence to the device in question can be demonstrated,
  • clinically relevant information coming from post-market surveillance, in particular the post-market clinical follow-up.

Post-market surveillance means all activities carried out by manufacturers in cooperation with other economic operators to institute and keep up to date a systematic procedure to proactively collect and review experience gained from devices they place on the market, make available on the market or put into service for the purpose of identifying any need to immediately apply any necessary corrective or preventive actions.

Market surveillance means the activities carried out and measures taken by competent authorities to check and ensure that devices comply with the requirements set out in the relevant Union harmonisation legislation and do not endanger health, safety or any other aspect of public interest protection.

Withdrawal means any measure aimed at preventing a device in the supply chain from being further made available on the market.

Incident means any malfunction or deterioration in the characteristics or performance of a device made available on the market, including use-error due to ergonomic features, as well as any inadequacy in the information supplied by the manufacturer and any undesirable side-effect.

Field safety corrective action means corrective action taken by a manufacturer for technical or medical reasons to prevent or reduce the risk of a serious incident in relation to a device made available on the market.

 

Article 19 - EU declaration of conformity

  1. The EU declaration of conformity shall state that the requirements specified in this Regulation have been fulfilled in relation to the device that is covered. The manufacturer shall continuously update the EU declaration of conformity. The EU declaration of conformity shall, as a minimum, contain the information set out in Annex IV and shall be translated into an official Union language or languages required by the Member State(s) in which the device is made available.
  2. Where, concerning aspects not covered by this Regulation, devices are subject to other Union legislation which also requires an EU declaration of conformity by the manufacturer that fulfilment of the requirements of that legislation has been demonstrated, a single EU declaration of conformity shall be drawn up in respect of all Union acts applicable to the device. The declaration shall contain all the information required for identification of the Union legislation to which the declaration relates.
  3. By drawing up the EU declaration of conformity, the manufacturer shall assume responsibility for compliance with the requirements of this Regulation and all other Union legislation applicable to the device.
  4. The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 115 amending the minimum content of the EU declaration of conformity set out in Annex IV in the light of technical progress.

 

Article 20 - CE marking of conformity

  1. Devices, other than custom-made or investigational devices, considered to be in conformity with the requirements of this Regulation shall bear the CE marking of conformity, as presented in Annex V.
  2. The CE marking shall be subject to the general principles set out in Article 30 of Regulation (EC) No 765/2008.
  3. The CE marking shall be affixed visibly, legibly and indelibly to the device or its sterile packaging. Where such affixing is not possible or not warranted on account of the nature of the device, the CE marking shall be affixed to the packaging. The CE marking shall also appear in any instructions for use and on any sales packaging.
  4. The CE marking shall be affixed before the device is placed on the market. It may be followed by a pictogram or any other mark indicating a special risk or use.
  5. Where applicable, the CE marking shall be followed by the identification number of the notified body responsible for the conformity assessment procedures set out in Article 52. The identification number shall also be indicated in any promotional material which mentions that a device fulfils the requirements for CE marking.
  6. Where devices are subject to other Union legislation which also provides for the affixing of the CE marking, the CE marking shall indicate that the devices also fulfil the requirements of that other legislation.

Legal acts repealed by Regulation (EU) 2017/745:
Directive 93/42/EEC (Partial repeal from 26/05/2021, see "Legal act" for more informations)
Directive 90/385/EEC (Partial repeal from 26/05/2020, See Active implantable medical devices)

Previous guidelines:
Guidelines on Medical Devices - Guidelines for competent authorities for making a validation/assessment of a clinical investigation application under Directives 93/42/EEC and 90/385/EEC - 12 October 2015
Guidelines on a Medical Devices vigilance system - January 2013
Additional Guidance Regarding the Vigilance System

Consolidated harmonised standards summary list - 5 January 2022

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2022/6 of 4 January 2022 amending Implementing Decision (EU) 2021/1182 as regards harmonised standards for biological evaluation of medical devices, sterilisation of health care products, aseptic processing of health care products, quality management systems, symbols to be used with information to be supplied by the manufacturer, processing of health care products and home light therapy equipment - OJ L 1/11 of 5 January 2022

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2021/1182 of 16 July 2021 on the harmonised standards for medical devices drafted in support of Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council - OJ L 256/100 of 19 July 2021

Consolidated text: Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/437 of 24 March 2020 on the harmonised standards for medical devices drafted in support of Council Directive 93/42/EEC - 15 April 2021

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2021/610 of 14 April 2021 amending Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/437 as regards harmonised standards on medical vehicles and their equipment, anaesthetic and respiratory equipment, biological evaluation of medical devices, packaging for terminally sterilised medical devices, sterilisation of health care products, clinical investigation of medical devices for human subjects, non-active surgical implants, medical devices utilising animal tissues and their derivatives, electroacoustics and medical electrical equipment - OJ L 129/153 of 15 April 2021

M565 Standardisation request to the European Committee for Standardisation - 15 May 2020

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/437 of 24 March 2020 on the harmonised standards for medical devices drafted in support of Council Directive 93/42/EEC - OJ L 90 I of 25 March 2020

List of standards that can help to reduce contagion (i.e. covid-19) - Article of 23 March 2020

Commission communication in the framework of the implementation of the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices - OJ C 389 of 17 November 2017

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/2226 of 14 December 2021 laying down rules for the application of Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards electronic instructions for use of medical devices - OJ L 448/32 of 15 December 2021

Commission Notice on the application of Sections 2.3 and 3.3 of Annex IX to Regulation (EU) 2017/745 and Regulation (EU) 2017/746 with regard to notified bodies’ audits performed in the context of quality management system assessment - OJ C 8 of 11 January 2021

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1207 of 19 August 2020 laying down rules for the application of Regulation (EU) 2017/745 as regards common specifications for the reprocessing of single-use devices - OJ L 273/3 of 20 August 2020

Availability and capacity of notified bodies to carry out conformity assessments for COVID-19 - June 2020

Guidance on regulatory requirements for medical face masks - June 2020

MDCG 2020-12 - Guidance on transitional provisions for consultations of authorities on devices incorporating a substance which may be considered a medicinal product and which has action ancillary to that of the device, as well as on devices manufactured using TSE susceptible animal tissues - June 2020

MDCG 2020-11 - Guidance on the renewal of designation and monitoring of notified bodies under Directives 90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC - 29 May 2020

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/666 of 18 May 2020 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) No 920/2013 as regards the renewal of designations and the surveillance and monitoring of notified bodies - OJ L 156 of 19 May 2020

MDCG 2020-10/1 - Safety reporting in clinical investigations of medical devices under the Regulation (EU) 2017/745 - May 2020

MDCG 2020-10/2 - Clinical Investigation Summary Safety Report Form v1.0 - May 2020

How to verify that medical devices and personal protective equipment - May 2020

Regulation (EU) 2017/745 posponed by one year - Article published on 03 April 2020

Conformity assessment procedures for 3D printing and 3D printed products to be used in a medical context for COVID-19 - April 2020

MDCG 2020-9 Regulatory requirements for ventilators and related accessories - April 2020

Guidance on temporary extraordinary measures related to medical device Notified Body audits during COVID-19 quarantine orders and travel restrictions - April 2020

Guidance on medical devices, active implantable medical devices and in vitro diagnostic medical devices in the COVID-19 context - April 2020

Joint Implementation/preparedness plan on the new Medical Devices Regulation 2017/745 (MDR) - 11 March 2020

Update joint assessments for publication - Overview of the bodies at each stage of the process - March 2020

Medical Devices: Guidance document - Implant Card relating to the application of Article 18 Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2017 on medical devices - June 2019

Commission Implementing Regulation laying down rules for the application of Regulation (EU) 2017/745 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards common specifications for the reprocessing of single-use medical devices - 2019

Statement of the Council’s reasons: Position (EU) No 2/2017 of the Council at first reading with a view to the adoption of a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on medical devices, amending Directive 2001/83/EC, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 and Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 and repealing Council Directives 90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC - C 116/197 - 11 April 2017

Medical Devices: Guidance document - Qualification and Classification of stand alone software - July 2016

Guidelines on Medical Devices - Clinical Evaluation: a Guide for Manufacturers and Notified Bodies under Directives 93/42/EEC and 90/385/EEC - June 2016